Research in Engineering and Aviation
Aerodynamic Performance of Suction-Side Gill Region Film Cooling
Author(s): J. C. Chappell, P. M. Ligrani, S. Sreekanth, T. Lucas, and E. Vlasic
Journal: ASME Transactions-Journal of Turbomachinery, Vol. 132, No. 3, pp. 031020-1 to 031020-11, July 2010. DOI: 10.1115/1.3151603
The performance of suction-side gill region film cooling is investigated using the University of Utah transonic wind tunnel and a simulated turbine vane in a two-dimensional cascade. The effects of film cooling hole orientation, shape, and number of rows, and their resulting effects on the aerodynamic losses, are considered for four different hole configurations: round axial (RA), shaped axial (SA), round radial (RR), and round compound (RC). The mainstream Reynolds number based on axial chord is 500,000, exit Mach number is 0.35, and the tests are conducted using the first row of holes, or both rows of holes at blowing ratios of 0.6 and 1.2. Carbon dioxide is used as the injectant to achieve density ratios of 1.77–1.99 similar to values present in operating gas turbine engines. Presented are the local distributions of total pressure loss coefficient, local normalized exit Mach number, and local normalized exit kinetic energy. Integrated aerodynamic losses (IAL) increase anywhere from 4% to 45% compared with a smooth blade with no film injection. The performance of each hole type depends on the airfoil configuration, film cooling configuration, mainstream flow Mach number, number of rows of holes, density ratio, and blowing ratio, but the general trend is an increase in IAL as either the blowing ratio or the number of rows of holes increase. In general, the largest total pressure loss coefficient Cp magnitudes and the largest IAL are generally present at any particular wake location for the RR or SA configurations, regardless of the film cooling blowing ratio and number of holes. The SA holes also generally produce the highest local peak Cp magnitudes. IAL magnitudes are generally lowest with the RA hole configuration. A one-dimensional mixing loss correlation for normalized IAL values is also presented, which matches most of the both rows data for RA, SA, RR, and RC hole configurations. The equation also provides good representation of the RA, RC, and RR first row data sets.