Research in Engineering and Aviation

Nonlinear Propagation of Sound Emitted by High Speed Wave Packets

June 2013

Author(s): Avital, E.J., Musafir, R.E., Korakianitis, T.

Journal: Journal of Computational Acoustics, 21(2), June 2013. DOI: 10.1142/S0218396X12500270


Jet’s sound-field emitted by a large scale source modeled as a wave packet is considered. Attention is given to nonlinear propagation effects caused by the source’s supersonic Mach number and high amplitude. The approach of the Westervelt equation is adapted to derive a new set of weakly nonlinear sound propagation equations. An optimized Lax–Wendorff scheme is proposed for the newly derived equations. It is shown that these equations can be simulated using a time step close to the CFL limit even for high amplitudes unlike the conventional finite-difference simulation approach of the Westervelt equation. Two- and three-dimensional sound propagations were simulated for symmetric and asymmetric supersonic wave packets. It is seen that nonlinearity in the sound field is affected by the wave packet form, an effect that cannot be captured by a 1D propagation equation. High skewness in the pressure fluctuation and its time derivative were found near the Mach direction, showing crackle-like features. Pressure time history and frequency spectra are also investigated.

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